Education in the Ukraine is compulsory from age 6 to age 15. The first 4 years are at elementary younger school. This introduces them to their school career in which they will be taught art and sciences from a practical orientation, so that they will be able to use them too, in later life.
Lower secondary osnowna serednia shkola
middle school is for scholars aged 10 to 15, following which they may qualify for their lower secondary school leaving certificates. The curriculum includes the Ukrainian language and literature, a foreign language, algebra, biology, chemistry, geography, geometry, history, physics, music, art and physical education.
Thereafter 3 years may be spent at starsha serednia shkola
or upper secondary school leading to a matriculation school certificate or atestat.
In the process, school students take a series of independent government tests, culminating in a final one that examines their /knowledge of Ukrainian language and literature, English / German / French / Spanish, as well as biology, chemistry, geography, mathematics and physics.
If students do not go on to upper secondary school, then they may opt to study further at own expense at a vocational secondary school. Programs take up to 4 years to complete, and result in a hierarchy of technical qualifications that fit them for a meaningful working role in Ukrainian society.
The ministry of education manages higher education, including vocational schools, colleges and universities. These may be privately or state funded, but all charge fees. Subsidized housing is usually available to assist those from out of town.
Two levels of degrees are awarded these days – bachelors after 4 years, and masters after a further 2. After that, further academic opportunities await. Previously the only degree awarded in Soviet times was a 5 year specialist one. The finest Ukranian tertiary institution is the National Technical University of Ukraine illustrated here.